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2023 Nobel Prize lectures in physics | Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier

Nobel Prize2023-12-08
noble prize#attosecond
50K views|6 months ago
💫 Short Summary

The 2023 Nobel lectures in physics and chemistry and the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences highlight exceptional research in atto physics, Quantum dots, and gender differences in the labor market. The physics laureates have enabled the exploration of electrons and the development of new materials through the study of light pulses. In chemistry, the Nobel laureate has uncovered the unique properties of Quantum dots, and in economics, the laureate has provided insights into gender differences in earnings and employment rates.The video discusses the physics of attosecond pulses and their application in time-resolved ionization, showcasing the measurement and control of attosecond pulses and their role in observing and controlling electron phenomena in atomic and subatomic dimensions.The speaker discusses the potential applications of electron-based signal processing and ATC physics in early health monitoring through the analysis of human blood plasma, which could contribute to the prevention of millions of premature deaths.

✨ Highlights
📊 Transcript
The 2023 Nobel lectures in physics and chemistry, and the prize in economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel, are introduced.
00:01
Alfred Nobel devoted his fortune to five International prices reflecting his own International experiences and activities.
The Nobel Prize in physics is awarded for discoveries and inventions, and in chemistry for discoveries and improvements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was instituted in 1968.
Nobel laureates in physics have given humanity new tools to explore the world of electrons inside atoms and molecules.
03:38
They have produced light pulses that are measured in atto seconds, allowing the measurement of rapid processes in which electrons move and change energy.
These short pulses of light can also be used to identify different molecules, for example, in medical diagnostics.
The "an" sound in "atom" changes to an "uh" sound.
11:55
Atoms absorb two photons in a nonlinear optical process and emit a photon at frequency 2 Omega.
Atoms can be excited or ionized by absorbing several photons simultaneously.
The process of above threshold ionization where an atom is ionized by absorbing more photon that is necessary for ionization was discovered.
18:40
An experiment was set up to observe the fluorescence light emitted by excited atoms or ions.
The experiment showed high order harmonics of the laser field in the medium.
The unexpected behavior of the harmonics was not based on the perturbation theory as expected.
The three-step model in strong field approximation describes the process of an atom in a strong laser field.
29:58
The laser field distorts the atomic potential, creating a barrier through which the electron can tunnel.
The electron is then driven away by the laser field, changes sign, and is pushed back towards the atom.
There is a probability of recombination where the electron gains kinetic energy and emits high energy photons.
This process is repeated every half cycle of the laser, leading to the emission of light.
The speaker discusses the measurement of the time it takes for an electron to propagate in the continuum and the wave quantum properties of the photoelectrons.
37:47
The speaker uses an analogy with music to explain the measurement of electron dynamics.
The position of the maxima of the oscillations is compared to the time it takes for the electron to ionize from the 2H shell and the 2P shell of neon.
The difference in time between the ionization from the 2H shell and the 2P shell is measured accurately within tenths of an atto second.
High harmonics are used to control silicon wafers for the Next Generation instruments that will control integrated circuits with very small dimensions.
40:47
The technique is used to control wafers with integrated circuits of the order of 10 nanometers or below in 2D and 3D.
The frequencies are developed by an industry in Holland.
The speaker thanks the organizations that have funded the research, including the Swedish Science Council, Swedish Research Council, European Research Council, and the Wallenberg Foundation.
The speaker also thanks their family for their support.
The lecture discusses the possibility of time division at the attosecond level, which is a billionth of a billionth of a second, and the potential limits of time division from a physics perspective.
43:20
Time division at the attosecond level may not be infinite due to the energy required and the eventual limit of plank time.
The lecture will cover the physics of attosecond pulses and their application in time-resolved ionization.
The speaker talks about the ionization process and the measurement of the phase of harmonics.
50:27
Electrons can be freed from the potential well in an atom if the photon energy is large enough.
The kinetic energy of the freed electron is the difference between the photon energy and the potential energy of the electron.
ATI (Above Threshold Ionization) was discovered by measuring the kinetic energy of photoelectrons, which was higher than predicted by the Einstein photo effect.
The phase of the harmonics can be measured using a two-photon absorption process.
The amplitude of the sidebands changes with the delay, and oscillations as predicted by the mathematical formula of Venar M are observed.
01:00:28
Spectrum with no infrared shows peaks corresponding to the harmonics.
Introduction of the laser superposes the laser to the harmonic beam and creates more peaks in the spectrum.
The amplitude of the sidebands changes with the delay, and oscillations as predicted by the mathematical formula of Venar M are observed.
The next step in physics is to understand mechanisms governed by electrons and their applications.
01:38:23
Utilizing electrons for electron-based signal processing and health monitoring.
Physics can possibly contribute to exploiting the fourth dimension for advancing electron-based signal processing.
ATC physics can possibly contribute to health monitoring by analyzing the molecular composition of human blood.
01:40:23
Technology based on complex vacuum systems has become simpler and more powerful.
Single cycle light can be used for optical field sampling and probing, enabling the analysis of the molecular composition of human blood.
The ability to precisely measure the oscillating field of light offers a new probe for ATC phenomena.
01:42:21
The electric field of light can probe the displacement of electronic charge density and polarization.
Integrating the rate of energy exchange between the field and the electronic system yields the transferred energy.
For insulators and semiconductors subjected to strong fields, the energy transfer appears to be completely irreversible.
Real-time access to the light-electron energy transfer explores optimum conditions for ultra-fast optoelectronic signal manipulation.
Infrared fingerprinting of blood plasma can detect changes in molecular composition, potentially screening for various health conditions.
01:45:47
Infrared fingerprinting can detect changes in blood plasma molecular composition
Studied the fingerprints of lung cancer patients and controls
Differences in fingerprints found between cancer patients and controls
Efficiency of distinguishing cases from controls depends on the cancer-induced signal and the spread of controls
Predicted above 90% detection efficiency for early-stage lung cancer
💫 FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. What were the key highlights of the 2023 Nobel lectures in physics and chemistry, and the lecture of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel?

The 2023 Nobel lectures highlighted the exceptional researchers and laureates who have increased fundamental knowledge and broadened views in the areas of physics, chemistry, and economics. The Nobel Prize in physics this year focused on "atto second physics," revealing the dynamics of electrons on very small time scales and their significant impact on daily life. The laureates discovered how to generate and measure very short light pulses, leading to new insights and applications in various fields. In the Nobel prize in economic Sciences, the laureate provided a comprehensive account of women's earnings and labor market participation, shedding light on gender differences and changing rates over time.

2. What are the potential applications of the research on "atto second physics" and high order harmonics mentioned in the Nobel lectures?

The potential applications of the research on "atto second physics" and high order harmonics are wide-ranging and impactful. In the field of physics, this research allows for the exploration of electron dynamics in matter, leading to a better understanding of quantum properties and the ability to measure electron propagation in the continuum. In a more applied context, the research has implications for the control of integrated circuits with very small dimensions, including the Next Generation instruments for 2D and 3D control of silicon wafers.

3. What is the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" about?

The "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" explores the physics of dividing time into attosecond intervals and the practical application of this concept in creating attosecond pulses for observing and controlling electron motion. It covers the potential limits of time division from a physics perspective and the development of technology to produce attosecond pulses.

4. How is the physics of time and attosecond pulse related to the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse"?

The physics of time and attosecond pulses is the focus of the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse," discussing the possibility of dividing time into attosecond intervals and the practical application of this concept in creating attosecond pulses for observing and controlling electron motion. The lecture covers the potential limits of time division from a physics perspective and the development of technology to produce attosecond pulses.

5. What practical applications are discussed in the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse"?

The "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" discusses the practical application of attosecond pulses in observing and controlling electron motion. It explores how the concept of attosecond pulses can be used in fundamental science and time-resolved spectroscopy to study the behavior of electrons in atomic and subatomic scales.

6. What are the key highlights of the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse"?

The key highlights of the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" include the exploration of the physics of dividing time into attosecond intervals, the practical application of attosecond pulses in observing and controlling electron motion, and the potential limits of time division from a physics perspective. The lecture also covers the development of technology to produce attosecond pulses and their use in fundamental science and time-resolved spectroscopy.

7. How does the "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" contribute to the understanding of electron behavior?

The "Genesis of an attosecond pulse" contributes to the understanding of electron behavior by discussing the practical application of attosecond pulses in observing and controlling electron motion. It explores how attosecond pulses can be used in fundamental science and time-resolved spectroscopy to study the behavior of electrons in atomic and subatomic scales, leading to a deeper understanding of their dynamics and interactions.

8. What are the potential applications of electron understanding discussed in the video?

The potential applications of electron understanding discussed in the video include opening the door to the world of electrons, better understanding mechanisms governed by electrons, and utilizing electron-based signal processing for health monitoring and early intervention.

9. How does the video suggest physics can contribute to early health monitoring?

The video suggests that physics can contribute to early health monitoring through the analysis of the molecular composition of human blood. By utilizing ATC physics, changes in the molecular composition of blood plasma can be detected, potentially enabling the early detection of various health conditions.

10. What is the significance of the "extreme temporal confinement" mentioned in the video?

The "extreme temporal confinement" mentioned in the video is significant because it allows for the survival of solid matter under the required critical field strength, which is essential for further advancing electron-based signal processing and other electronic applications.

11. How is the "electric field of light" described in the video, and what potential does it have for further exploration?

The "electric field of light" is described as a probe for exploring the displacement of electronic charge density and polarization. It has the potential for further exploration in the field of electronics and understanding the interaction between light and matter.

12. What is the method proposed in the video for early detection of health conditions, and what evidence supports its effectiveness?

The video proposes the method of infrared fingerprinting of blood plasma for the early detection of health conditions. The evidence supporting its effectiveness includes the ability to detect changes in the molecular composition of blood plasma, as well as the promising results for early-stage lung cancer detection.