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Nobel lecture: Yoshinori Ohsumi, Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Nobel Prize2016-12-11
139K views|7 years ago
💫 Short Summary

Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi's Nobel Prize-winning research on autophagy in yeast and mammalian cells revolutionized our understanding of this essential cellular process. Autophagy, the self-digestion of cellular components, plays a crucial role in maintaining health and preventing diseases. Collaborative efforts have identified key genes and mechanisms involved in autophagy, shedding light on its physiological functions and implications for various diseases like neurodegeneration and cancer. The research underscores the importance of fundamental science and the need to bridge the gap between basic discoveries and practical applications for societal benefit.

✨ Highlights
📊 Transcript
Dr. Osumi awarded 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for autophagy research.
02:05
Autophagy is a process where cells digest their own content for energy or recycling.
Dr. Osumi focused on unicellular organisms, particularly baker's yeast, to study autophagy.
Autophagy was first observed over 50 years ago, but largely unknown for almost 30 years.
Dr. Osumi's discoveries significantly impacted research on autophagy.
Professor Yoshinori Ohsumi's groundbreaking work in autophagy has led to a comprehensive understanding of its importance for physiology and disease.
06:32
His research identified essential genes and mechanisms of autophagy in both yeast and mammalian cells.
Ohsumi's scientific curiosity and hard work paved the way for our current knowledge of autophagy as a fundamental biological process with significant implications for health.
He received multiple awards for his contributions, including the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Ohsumi's journey from poverty in post-World War II Japan to scientific success exemplifies dedication and perseverance in the face of challenges.
The speaker's journey from childhood to becoming a scientist with a focus on ribosomes and protein synthesis.
13:28
After studying chemistry and molecular biology, the speaker joined a graduate program specializing in ribosomes and protein synthesis.
The speaker worked on membrane function and cytotoxic proteins before starting their own lab to study the Bakio membrane's role in metabolite and ion homeostasis.
They described a pump on the membrane generating a gradient and focused on the lytic function of vacuums, specifically acidic compartments with various hydr.
Importance of Proteins in Biological Processes
21:35
Proteins are synthesized based on genetic information encoded in DNA.
Recent advancements in cell biology have revealed intricate protein localization and trafficking mechanisms.
Protein degradation within cells is crucial for new construction and regeneration.
A balance between protein synthesis and degradation is maintained in the human body, with amino acids sourced from the degradation of existing proteins.
Discoveries in intracellular protein degradation systems led to a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2004.
23:10
Protein degradation systems, including autophagy and the Yin protome system, play a crucial role in regulating cell processes.
Despite its importance, research on autophagy mechanisms is still in its early stages.
Microscopy has been instrumental in observing cellular structures and phenomena related to autophagic processes.
Further research is needed to understand how cells respond to different nutrient conditions in relation to autophagy.
The process of autophagy and the discovery of the ATG1 mutant.
29:52
The speaker was inspired by previous research on cell cycle regulation and secretion pathways.
A screening was conducted to identify autophagy-defective mutants.
The ATG1 mutant showed impaired protein degradation but grew normally in nutrient-rich conditions.
The ATG1 mutant had a shorter lifespan compared to wild-type cells during starvation.
Research on autophagy and the identification of essential atg genes.
33:19
Initial progress was made despite limited resources.
Collaborations and breakthroughs in identifying key molecules like atg12 and atg8.
Discovery of enzyme systems and membrane markers providing insights into atg genes.
Unique conjugation systems and processing mechanisms for atg8 were revealed.
Essential atg genes for autophagy revolutionized research.
42:09
Visualization of autophagy process enabled through fluorescence microscopy.
Transgenic mice expressing gfpl lc3 used to evaluate autophagy in organs.
Knockout mice studies showed vital role of autophagy in survival.
Manipulation of atg genes in cells and organs provided insights into functions and diseases.
Autophagy's primary function is nutrient recycling, with an evolutionary adaptation to nutrient limitations.
44:30
Autophagy has a selective function in targeting specific proteins, structures, and materials for degradation.
Autophagy is crucial in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing health issues and diseases.
Ongoing research on selective autophagy, like mitochondrial autophagy, aims to understand its molecular details and functions better.
Advancements in Flores microscopy show the movement of ATG 17 complex under certain conditions.
Research on HG proteins under starvation conditions reveals the hierarchical relationship between atg proteins and the formation process.
50:30
Collaborative work provides structural information crucial for understanding protein function.
Studies on atg13 highlight its unique structure and binding sites, contributing to the formation of higher-ordered structures.
The dynamic and regulated nature of atg protein interactions during membrane formation is emphasized.
Current focus lies on exploring the physiological significance of these findings.
The speaker emphasizes the relevance of autophagy in diseases like neurogeneration and cancer.
58:13
Rapid growth of autophagy as a field in biology is highlighted, with gratitude to researchers worldwide for their contributions.
Importance of bridging the gap between basic discoveries and practical applications is emphasized.
A call is made for nurturing science for both purpose-oriented and cultural activity.
The speaker expresses hope for society to value fundamental science and acknowledges the support of colleagues, collaborators, and family in their career.