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Sensation & Perception - Part 3

Karl Oswald2019-09-20
733 views|4 years ago
💫 Short Summary

The video explores the relationship between attention and perception, showcasing how our focus influences the way we interpret visual stimuli. It discusses top-down and bottom-up processing, optical illusions like the Muller-Lyer and Ponzo illusions, and the concept of size constancy. The impact of context, prior experiences, and cultural background on perception is also highlighted. Additionally, the video touches on how companies use user data from platforms like Instagram and Facebook for artificial intelligence purposes to predict behaviors and emotions. Overall, it emphasizes the malleability of perception and the role of various factors in shaping our understanding of the world.

✨ Highlights
📊 Transcript
The relationship between perception and attention.
03:35
Viewers can perceive the rotation direction of a spinning ballerina changing by focusing on different parts of the display.
Attention influences perception, allowing viewers to switch their perception by altering their focus.
The impact of attention on how individuals interpret visual stimuli is showcased.
Perception is malleable based on where one directs their attention.
The role of attention in shaping perception and constructing the world.
05:58
Attention limits what can be processed and perceived, as demonstrated in figure-ground perception.
The connection between attention and perception raises questions about free will and consciousness.
Once a perception is constructed, it is difficult to change, akin to the concept of 'once seen, cannot be unseen.'
Initial perceptions have a strong impact and altering them can be challenging.
Exploration of Perception through Image Exercise
09:35
The exercise with the hidden cigar demonstrates that once something is perceived a certain way, it cannot be unseen.
Perception is heavily influenced by context, as the environment can shape one's understanding of the world.
The concept of top-down and bottom-up processing in perception is highlighted, showing how our brains construct reality based on sensory input and prior knowledge.
Discussion on bottom-up and top-down processing in perception.
15:10
Changes in lighting can impact perception, with bottom-up processing affected by light entering the eye.
Objects appearing different under varying lighting conditions are attributed to top-down processing.
Prior experience influences how individuals interpret visual stimuli.
Audience prompted to consider effects of prior experience on perception and distinguish between bottom-up and top-down processing.
Top-down processing in perception and how prior experiences influence perception.
19:52
Our brains compensate for changes in shading or color based on past experiences.
Importance of context in perception and how color constancy allows color to remain constant despite changes in visual input.
Perceptual systems construct the world based on past experiences, affecting how we interpret visual stimuli.
The impact of perception on optical illusions and boundaries.
23:26
Lateral inhibition plays a significant role in how we perceive the world around us.
Our perceptual systems are constantly creating and exaggerating boundaries.
The potential for replicating these processes in artificial intelligence systems is discussed.
Mimicking these computations digitally is considered feasible.
Big companies offer free services like Instagram, Snapchat, and Facebook to gather user data for AI.
27:11
Data collected includes user interactions, allowing AI to predict emotions and behaviors.
User information is shared and sold to other companies for targeted advertising.
AI systems create digital profiles to influence choices, including political views and consumer behavior.
Size illusions are caused by the relative size of surrounding objects.
30:37
Retinal image changes with distance, but perception remains constant.
The Ponzo illusion involves misperceiving line lengths based on context.
Placing lines on different backgrounds affects perceived length.
Understanding these illusions is crucial for interpreting visual information accurately.
Visual illusions and perception.
35:30
Objects further away appear smaller on the retina due to the Ponzo illusion and size constancy.
Perceived size is influenced by distance, as demonstrated by examples of students in a hallway.
The Muller-Lyer illusion shows how adding arrows to lines can alter perception of length, tricking the brain into perceiving one line as longer.
These illusions emphasize how contextual cues and distance can impact perception.
The Muller-Lyer illusion challenges the idea of objective reality and highlights the impact of context on visual processing.
40:25
Identical lines appear different lengths depending on surrounding cues, demonstrating how context influences perception.
Viewers are prompted to consider how bottom-up processing influences perception.
A clicker question is used to test understanding of the concept.
The segment emphasizes the role of context in shaping our interpretation of the world around us.
Explanation of bottom-up and top-down processing in visual perception.
43:47
Prior experience influences perception of size and distance, demonstrated through examples like the Muller-Lyer and Ponzo illusions.
Size constancy and color constancy contribute to visual illusions.
Viewers are encouraged to understand these concepts for potential exam questions.
Manipulating perspective can create illusions of size and distance in visual perception.
Ken Gay and the Water Buffalo: Size Constancy and Perception.
49:26
Ken Gay, an anthropologist guide in Africa, mistook distant water buffalo for insects due to lack of size constancy.
Lack of prior knowledge and experience with faraway objects led to his misconceptions.
Personal experiences and cultural background heavily influence perception and understanding of the world.
Cultural differences impact perception between Asians and Americans.
53:44
North American students tend to focus more on objects, while Chinese students pay attention to background details.
These differences in perception are culturally driven and have existed for over 2,000 years.
Experiences, including cultural and language influences, shape how we perceive the world.
Recognizing patterns is important in understanding diverse perspectives.