Go Summarize

How China Got Rich | ENDEVR Documentary

ENDEVR2021-01-13
Free documentary#documentaries#full documentary#hd documentary#documentary - topic#documentary (tv genre)#Business Documentary#china#how china got rich#china documentary#china business#capitalism#socialism#china economy#chinese history#Deng Xiaoping
1M views|3 years ago
💫 Short Summary

China's transformation over the last 40 years has been remarkable, with the country becoming a global economic force under Deng Xiaoping's leadership. China's history includes a period of decline and humiliation, but Deng Xiaoping's pragmatic approach and vision for prosperity propelled the country towards significant changes, including the reopening of universities and the embrace of market principles. In the video, it is discussed how China's leader Deng Xiaoping facilitated the country's transition to a more open and market-oriented economy in the late 1970s. Deng's exposure to the outside world, particularly during visits to Europe, Japan, and Singapore, convinced him of the need for China to embrace science, technology, and economic reform. The video also highlights the pivotal moment in 1978 when Deng delivered a speech rejecting ideology and emphasizing the importance of seeking truth from facts, marking a significant shift in China's direction. The video discusses how China's economic reforms began in the late 1970s, with the help of foreign technical assistance and the establishment of special economic zones. Deng Xiaoping's pragmatic approach combined elements of socialism and market economy, leading to the release of productive forces and the training of talented individuals to drive economic growth. After decades of struggle, China's path to modernization was set in motion in 1978 with reforms in agriculture, education, and industry, allowing for private businesses to flourish. Deng Xiaoping's concept of political reform focused on economic liberalization within one-party rule, rejecting Western-style political liberalization. China's rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to the growth of a huge middle class and the country's outreach to the world through companies like Alibaba. However, China's political system remains pre-modern, with power concentrated in the hands of the rulers, creating a fundamental contradiction in the country. China's Belt and Road Initiative aims to connect Asia, Europe, and beyond through land and sea trade routes, showcasing China's growing economic and political influence. China's focus on AI, green technology, and global leadership in addressing climate change positions them as a major player in shaping the future, despite concerns about ideological conformity and lack of Western-style democracy.

✨ Highlights
📊 Transcript
China's transformation over the last 40 years has been astonishing, lifting the country to become a global economic force.
00:00
Under Deng Xiaoping's leadership, China renounced class struggle and embraced the market, leading to the biggest lifting of people out of poverty in human history.
After facing colonial oppression, Japanese invasion, and civil war, China's economy was in ruins by the early 70s.
Deng Xiaoping returned from exile in 1976 with a vision to make China more prosperous and stable.
He believed that one-party rule by the communist party was essential for stability, but rejected Mao Zedong's concept of permanent revolution.
Deng Xiaoping's push for change in the late 1970s included undoing the damage caused by Mao's policies and the Cultural Revolution.
04:10
Universities were closed, and examinations were shut down during the Cultural Revolution, depriving a whole generation of education opportunities.
Deng Xiaoping called for the reopening of exams and made them free, fair, and open to all, not just the party members.
The first exams took place in December 1977, with 5.7 million candidates applying and less than five percent being admitted.
The decision to allow exams for university admissions in 1977 was a life-changing moment for many in China, as it provided opportunities for people from diverse backgrounds.
10:32
The exam changed the lives of coal miners, farmers, soldiers, workers, and young apprentices who were admitted to universities.
In a culture that valued education, this moment was transformational for the country.
In 1978, Deng Xiaoping emerged as the preeminent leader in China, despite not being officially the top leader.
12:06
He realized that the traditional thinking of the previous leaders, including himself, was completely wrong.
Deng Xiaoping's leadership marked a dramatic change for China.
China's leaders realized the need to learn from and catch up with the rest of the world.
13:00
In 1978, Deng Xiaoping sent a fact-finding mission to Europe, where they were shocked to see how far behind communist China had fallen.
Deng Xiaoping, who had spent time in France and Japan, had an international outlook that helped him understand China's backwardness.
The Chinese people were awakening to the modern world, with the desire for change growing among the ordinary population.
Deng Xiaoping encouraged the Chinese people to embrace science, technology, and a market economy to improve the country's condition.
17:00
In 1978, the village of Xiaogang in Anhui province saw local farmers breaking the commune system of collective farming and secretly pledging to return to family farms.
Deng Xiaoping emphasized the need to reject ideology, seek truth from facts, embrace science and technology, and open up the market to improve the country's condition.
This approach divided the party between reformers who were excited and hardliners who feared betraying the revolution.
The US and China were in secret negotiations to improve their relationship.
22:00
The US had previously recognized the nationalists in Taiwan as the legitimate rulers of China.
In 1979, the US recognized the People's Republic of China and Deng Xiaoping visited Washington to meet President Jimmy Carter.
Deng Xiaoping needed US support for his reform work, and the engagement had goals of changing China and lifting people out of poverty.
China's Opening Up to the World and Need for Technical Assistance
25:00
In the late 1970s, China realized it was behind in the area of computing and needed technical assistance.
A ranking official at the UN invited a person to New York to discuss a highly secretive project related to China's opening up to the world.
The person was asked to lead a programming mission to figure out what China wanted to do and how the UN could help in the area of computing.
China's reform process in the 1980s focused on education, urbanization, and economic growth.
36:00
China invested heavily in primary and secondary education, especially for women.
Urbanization led to a rapid increase in the rural population moving to cities.
Moving from a bicycle-dominated transportation system to a focus on productivity in factories.
Deng Xiaoping led the economic reform in China but not political or democratic reform.
39:00
China's modernization focused on economic and technological well-being, not liberal ideas.
Deng Xiaoping's approach was pragmatic and experimental, focusing on what works for development.
The contradiction between China's transformed society and its pre-modern political system.
China's economy has modernized and become successful, but the political system remains pre-modern.
42:00
China's economy has grown nearly 70 times in 40 years due to reform and openness policies.
The Chinese government still maintains one-party rule and concentration of power.
Chinese companies like Alibaba have embraced globalization and reached out to the world.
The Chinese middle class has grown to 400 million, with a focus on education and technology.
China's approach to technology involved learning by doing, importing know-how, and developing their own programs.
45:00
China prioritized putting technology to work and building the economy over theoretical knowledge.
The lack of regulation has allowed China to catch up quickly with Western technology.
China has invested in high-speed train technology and has a 25,000-kilometer network.
China's Belt and Road initiative aims to link the trade of Asia, Europe, and beyond by land and sea.
47:00
This is an infrastructure project of extraordinary scale and ambition.
Chinese junks and Arab dhow carried China's produce like tea, silk, and ceramics to the West in the Middle Ages.
Today, container ships from Chinese ports are supplying goods across the world.
China's growing economic power is leading to increasing political and cultural influence, with the balance of power in the world shifting quickly.
China is becoming a key player in influencing global culture through its control of the film industry and its economic power.
49:00
Hollywood's profit model relies on the Chinese box office, leading to self-censorship and the acceptance of Chinese practices.
China's economic power allows it to become the tastemaker of the world, influencing both supply and demand.
China's influence extends beyond economics and culture to technology, with the country poised to join the US as a leader in AI.
China is positioning itself to be a global leader in technology, particularly in AI and environmental solutions.
52:00
China is investing heavily in AI and encouraging business to work with tech universities.
Chinese corporations like Tencent, Alibaba, and Huawei are challenging the supremacy of US corporations.
China is also leading the fight against climate change and investing in green technology.
China's long-term vision and economic growth potential are strong, but some believe its unwillingness to embrace Western-style democracy could impede progress.
53:00
Freedom and openness to the outside world have contributed to China's growth, but maintaining ideological conformity may be a challenge.
China's focus on becoming a leader in technology and innovation requires an educated workforce, which could be hindered by closing off from the outside world.
China's mix of capitalism and one-party rule has defied predictions of failure, leading to significant economic growth and global influence.
54:00
China's per capita GDP has risen dramatically, making it the second largest economy by official exchange rate and the largest by purchasing power parity.
The consumerist middle class in China, despite enjoying abundance and opportunities, has not led to a push for democracy as traditionally presumed.
💫 FAQs about This YouTube Video

1. How did China transform from an impoverished and backward communist country to an engine of global capitalism?

China transformed from an impoverished and backward communist country to an engine of global capitalism in the last 40 years through the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, who renounced class struggle and embraced the market, leading to China's phenomenal economic growth and rise as a global economic force.

2. What were the key factors that contributed to China's growth and transformation in the past 40 years?

China's growth and transformation in the past 40 years were influenced by Deng Xiaoping's leadership, the renouncement of class struggle, embracing the market, and the lifting of people out of poverty, leading to China's rapid economic growth and global economic force.

3. How did Deng Xiaoping's vision for China contribute to its prosperity and economic growth?

Deng Xiaoping's vision for China to become more prosperous and his emphasis on stability through one-party rule and the embrace of the market contributed to China's prosperity and economic growth, leading to its transformation into a global economic force.

4. What role did Deng Xiaoping play in opening up China to the world and initiating its economic transformation?

Deng Xiaoping played a crucial role in opening up China to the world and initiating its economic transformation by renouncing class struggle, embracing the market, and leading China's phenomenal economic growth, lifting millions out of poverty and positioning China as a global economic force.

5. How has China's transformation in the past 40 years impacted its global position and economic influence?

China's transformation in the past 40 years has elevated its global position and economic influence, positioning it as a leading global economic force and reshaping the balance of power in the world.

6. What was the reason for Deng Xiaoping's 1978 fact-finding mission to Europe and his visit to Japan and Singapore?

Deng Xiaoping's fact-finding mission to Europe and his visit to Japan and Singapore in 1978 were to learn from the outside world and to understand the extent of China's backwardness, with the goal of initiating reform and opening up China to the global market.

7. How did Deng Xiaoping's exposure to the outside world influence his vision for China's future?

Deng Xiaoping's exposure to the outside world led him to realize the extent of China's backwardness and the need for reform. It influenced his vision to modernize China and open up to the global market.

8. What pivotal moment in Chinese history led to the beginning of reform and opening up to the global market?

The beginning of reform and opening up to the global market in China can be traced back to Deng Xiaoping's leadership and his realization of the country's backwardness after his exposure to the outside world during the 1978 fact-finding mission to Europe and his visits to Japan and Singapore.

9. How did Deng Xiaoping's 1978 visit to the village of Xiaogang showcase the desire for change and the beginning of agricultural reform in China?

Deng Xiaoping's visit to the village of Xiaogang in 1978 showcased the desire for change and the beginning of agricultural reform in China by highlighting the farmers' secret pact to break away from the commune system and return to family farming, marking a pivotal moment in Chinese agricultural reform.

10. What were the key aspects of Deng Xiaoping's speech at the 1978 conference in Beijing that reflected his vision for China's future?

Deng Xiaoping's speech at the 1978 conference in Beijing emphasized the rejection of ideology, the importance of seeking truth from facts, the embracement of science and technology, and the need to open up the market to change China's backward condition, reflecting his vision for modernization and reform.

11. What was the purpose of the highly secretive project discussed in the video?

The purpose of the highly secretive project discussed in the video was to lead a programming mission to figure out China's plans to open up to the world and provide technical assistance in the area of computing.

12. How did China's opening up to the world contribute to the third industrial revolution?

China's opening up to the world contributed to the third industrial revolution by seeking technical assistance in computing and realizing the importance of computing in the future.

13. What role did Guangzhou play in China's historic commercial development?

Guangzhou played a significant role in China's historic commercial development as the testing ground for the country's economic reforms and the gateway to a better life for many Chinese.

14. How did Deng Xiaoping initiate the economic reforms in China?

Deng Xiaoping initiated the economic reforms in China by allowing market forces to operate in special economic zones, unleashing the potential of the new economic reforms.

15. What was the key factor in China's economic and social experiment?

The key factor in China's economic and social experiment was the combination of the communist command economy with the energy of capitalism, leading to the successful economic reforms.

16. What were the key features of China's modernization process in the 1980s?

China's modernization in the 1980s involved reforming agriculture, education, and industry, as well as urbanization and the growth of a middle class.

17. How did Deng Xiaoping approach the reform and modernization of Chinese society and its economy?

Deng Xiaoping focused on economic liberalization and modernization while maintaining one-party rule, avoiding political liberalization or globalization in the Western style.

18. What were the main factors contributing to the growth of China's middle class?

The middle class in China grew as a result of economic liberation, urbanization, and the focus on education and technological advancement. This led to the emergence of a middle class with its own tastes and desires.

19. What is the significance of China's rapid urbanization and industrial growth during its modernization process?

China's rapid urbanization and industrial growth were significant factors in its modernization, leading to the transformation of society and the economy, as well as the expansion of the middle class.

20. How did China approach modernization and economic growth while maintaining its political system?

China pursued modernization and economic growth while maintaining a one-party political system, focusing on economic liberalization and technological advancement without adopting Western political ideas and values.

21. What is China's Belt and Road Initiative?

China's Belt and Road Initiative is an infrastructure project of extraordinary scale and ambition, linking up the trade of Asia, Europe, and beyond by land and sea.

22. How is China's growing economic power impacting the world?

China's growing economic power is leading to increasing political and cultural influence...