# a16z Podcast | Quantum Computing, Now and Next

a16z2019-01-02

287 views|5 years ago

💫 Short Summary

The video discusses the evolution of computing from the PC revolution to quantum computing, highlighting advancements in transistor technology, the impact of Moore's Law, and the challenges in building more powerful computers. It explores the competitive dynamics in the tech industry, the potential applications of quantum computing, and the global efforts in this field. Quantum computing allows computation with continuous variables, offering performance doubling with each qubit addition and enabling tasks impossible for current supercomputers. The video also addresses the limitations of solving equations for systems of meaningful sizes and the potential impact of quantum computing on various industries.

✨ Highlights

📊 Transcript

✦

Overview of the history of computing, from the PC revolution in the 70s to the current era of mobile phones.

00:56Advancements in transistor technology, from the integration of transistors on a single chip in the 50s to the current nanometer-sized transistors.

Exponential growth in computing power due to Moore's law has transformed the industry.

Discussion on quantum computing and its potential applications, as well as the global competition in this field.

Insights from the CEO of Righetti Computing on the evolution of computing hardware and the significance of quantum computing.

✦

Challenges in Transistor Technology

02:47Transistors are important for encoding digital information but need to be more energy-efficient and compact.

Current fabrication technologies are reaching physical limits, leading to concerns about power density and heat extraction.

Multi-core processors are a solution to Moore's Law limitations, but parallelizing computations across many processors may have diminishing returns.

Building more powerful computers is becoming harder and more expensive due to transistor size limitations and the high cost of manufacturing infrastructure.

✦

Evolution of competitive dynamics in the tech industry.

05:46Intel and other companies have strived to keep up with Moore's law.

Industry has shifted focus to alternative methods for accelerating data processing.

Quantum computing influenced by economic forces, experiencing steady improvement.

✦

Advancements in modern computing technology, such as quantum computing and neuromorphic chips, have significantly improved performance levels.

08:51Companies are heavily investing in manufacturing infrastructure to create individual chips that can compete with supercomputers.

Quantum mechanics, which is over a century old, now enables the development of machines that operate based on its principles.

Quantum computing involves encoding information in quantum states to control data representation in computations.

This shift towards deterministic outcomes highlights the potential of quantum computing in revolutionizing the field of computing.

✦

Quantum computing enables computation with continuous variables, offering exponential increases in information encoding capabilities.

10:14Each additional quantum bit leads to a doubling in performance, regardless of memory size.

Quantum computers can tackle tasks beyond current supercomputers, such as simulating quantum systems like molecular properties.

This advancement in computational chemistry provides deeper insights into molecular generation and properties, surpassing traditional computing methods due to the complexity involved.

✦

Limitations in solving equations for systems of meaningful sizes due to computational complexity.

13:12Small systems behaving like quantum computers, requiring sophisticated classical computers to optimize quantum hardware usage.

Two classes of applications: systems with quantum properties and complex classical computing problems.

Emphasis on rapid advancements in quantum hardware and developing algorithms to maximize potential.

Reflection on past technological predictions and human adaptability in utilizing computers for various purposes.

✦

Emerging quantum computing applications focus on hybrid algorithms utilizing both quantum and classical hardware.

15:51Quantum processors enhance classical computing capabilities by providing directionality for optimization loops.

Integration of quantum capabilities into existing cloud infrastructure is being pursued through new instruction language for programming classical and quantum computers.

Challenges remain in achieving quantum coherence for extended periods, a persistent bottleneck in the field of quantum computing.

✦

Advancements in Quantum Computing Development.

17:35In 2002, only a few groups had demonstrated a superconducting qubit with measurable coherence time, pivotal for quantum computing development.

Quantum computers use qubits to encode information, different from classical computing with bits and transistors.

Efforts over the past decade have focused on increasing quantum coherent lifetime and solving fundamental issues of quantum computing.

Researchers today aim to pack enough quantum bits on a single chip for practical computations with low error rates, with major efforts from IBM, Google, and Microsoft.

✦

Global progress in quantum computing with significant developments in Australia, Western Europe, and China.

21:59Quantum computing will have a transformative impact on various industries worldwide.

Verde Computing is a quantum computing company specializing in designing and manufacturing quantum integrated circuits.

The company operates these circuits using a complex system and has a diverse team of physicists, engineers, and technicians.

Collaborative efforts with experts from different fields are essential for solving core technology problems in quantum computing, making it a highly impactful area for software engineers.

✦

Evolution of Quantum Computers with Neural Networks and Deep Learning.

22:57GPUs available over AWS have been instrumental in advancements in quantum computing.

Predictions of a surge in quantum engineers and software developers in the next five years.

Emphasis on the importance of application development and early customer engagement.

Building a company from the ground up seen as a strategic advantage to compete in the quantum computing industry.

✦

Quantum computing, particularly Shor's algorithm, threatens standard encryption protocols like RSA encryption.

25:35A machine capable of running Shor's algorithm on relevant problem sizes is not expected for another 20 to 30 years.

Quantum computers have potential in improving artificial intelligence, impacting chemistry, and transforming healthcare, energy generation, and food production.

🎥 Related Videos

### a16z Podcast | Things Come Together -- Truths about Tech in Africa

### a16z Podcast | The Infrastructure of Total Health

### The Robot Lawyer Resistance with Joshua Browder of DoNotPay

### a16z Podcast | Bots and Beyond

### Design Sprints as a Tool for Organizational Change

### a16z Podcast | Valuing Today's Fast-Growing Software Companies

🔥 Recently Summarized Examples